Memory is a reconstruction, not an exact depiction or record. So memory can be remarkably accurate or remarkably inaccurate. Memory decay: The time between the event and when we are asked to intervene can make a huge difference in what we remember seeing. Eyewitnesses can provide very compelling legal testimony, but rather than recording experiences flawlessly, their memories are susceptible to a variety of errors and biases. Flashbulb … There seem to be many factors that contribute to eyewitness misidentification. Eyewitness testimony, they argue, is “the least reliable form of evidence in a criminal trial”. Phone: (310) 456-3317, Santa Monica Location Is eyewitness testimony too unreliable to trust? Why eyewitness testimony is almost worthless. As the Thomson example illustrates, an eyewitness identification can even outweigh a strong alibi supported by other testimony. Eyewitnesses have become less important since the advent of DNA evidence. On the other, eye witness testimony is notoriously unreliable from a scientific perspective. Eyewitness reports are not reliable in court. On the other, eye witness testimony is notoriously unreliable from a scientific perspective. Do criminal psychopaths enjoy other people's fear or just notice it? This article looks at why eyewitness testimony can be unreliable and what should be done about it. Why Eyewitness Testimony Can Be Unreliable. With a look. Related Myths. Eyewitness memory is reliable when initially tested using proper procedures, but the legal system nonetheless habitually relies on unreliable (contaminated) eyewitness evidence from later IDs. Information about the device's operating system, Information about other identifiers assigned to the device, The IP address from which the device accesses a client's website or mobile application, Information about the user's activity on that device, including web pages and mobile apps visited or used, Information about the geographic location of the device when it accesses a website or mobile application. You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website. Although witnesses can often be very confident that their memory is accurate when identifying a suspect, the malleable nature of human memory and visual perception makes eyewitness testimony one of the most unreliable forms of evidence. Juries tend to pay close attention to eyewitness testimony and generally find it a reliable source of information. This article is arguing that eyewitness testimony is not inherently unreliable, and that it is in fact preferable to forensic evidence, all other things being equal. In short, the ripple effect causes witnesses to double down after they accuse someone. Nothing on this site should be taken as legal advice for any individual case or situation. Just as you wake up after a nightmare with it fresh in your mind, through the day it diminishes until we don’t remember exact details. Expert explains why eyewitness testimonies can be unreliable in solving crimes More After showing the results of the "GMA" social experiment, former Secret Service agent Evy … Because people's memories can be fragile and are often easily distorted. An eyewitness who steps into the witness box holds the jury’s full attention, as well as, that of the audience. Get aggressive representation. "Is eye-witness testimony flawless?" Phone: (310) 456-3317, Malibu Location U.S. Department of Justice. #309, 23838 Pacific Coast Highway As time progresses, so do our memories of the event. This view was reflected in rules of evidence that limited children’s competence to give evidence and required corroboration and judicial warning in relation to children’s evidence. on a report in 1984 there was a report that jennifer was raped. Why Eyewitness Testimony Can Be Unreliable. There are many factors that have been shown to influence eyewitness testimony such as an age bias relating to both the perpetrator and the witness. Reed College, University of California, Irvine. In News by yoel September 25, 2015. Without objective evidence, the two are indistinguishable. By the same token, DNA evidence is largely viewed as unassailable, in part because of its publicized role in overturning wrongful convictions. Eyewitness testimony can not be trusted because memory fills in the gaps of what we saw. Los Angeles Location Malibu, CA 90265. Why can eyewitness testimony be unreliable? Particularly in criminal cases, eyewitnesses can have a major impact on the outcome of a trial. The eyewitness will often have not enough information in the memory itself, so the reconstruction must invoke pieces of information from other sources or pieces that are taken from other memories. Everything we see is a perspective, not the truth.” This quote should be branded onto the front panel of every jury box in the country. As the Thomson example illustrates, an eyewitness identification can even outweigh a strong alibi supported by other testimony. As we’re exposed to police officers, lineups, and daily life we can forget the reality of an event. Eyewitness testimony plays a big role in the justice system. Ventura, CA 93001. Memory errors fall into two classes: people can 1) either completely fail to recall an event or 2) have an inaccurate recollection. Even physical attributes such as the clothing a person wore or their facial features can change. Created by. Can an MRI machine also act as a lie detector? But we now know that these testimonies are really very unreliable, despite the fact that a person may have actually witnessed the crime. The most important foundation for eyewitness testimony is a person's memory - after all, whatever testimony is being reported is coming from what a person remembers. The eyewitness will often have not enough information in the memory itself, so the reconstruction must invoke pieces of information from other sources or pieces that are taken from other memories. Eyewitness testimony is key but just how reliable is at work about the find out. Eyewitness testimony can not be trusted because memory fills in the gaps of what we saw. It also depends on what you mean exactly by “eyewitness testimony.” I assume you are talking about cases that involve issues of identification by one or more eyewitnesses. Los Angeles, CA 90066. This is sometimes unfortunate because eyewitness memory is highly fallible. It can be suggested that juries should also consider the factors that could influence the recall of events as this is one of the reasons as to why eyewitness testimony may be seen as unreliable. Are you a suspect or person of interest in a federal case? Eyewitness testimony can be unreliable due to conditions at the scene of a crime, memory “contamination” and misrepresentation during trial. It can be suggested that juries should also consider the factors that could influence the recall of events as this is one of the reasons as to why eyewitness testimony may be seen as unreliable. But we now know that these testimonies are really very unreliable, despite the fact that a person may have actually witnessed the crime. Sometimes we add details to an event that didn’t happen or we forget in what order they happened. Eyewitness testimony is a potent form of evidence for convicting the accused, but it is subject to unconscious memory distortions and biases even among the most confident of witnesses. It was Marcus Aurelius who said, “Everything we hear is an opinion, not a fact. 2010. http://www.virginia.edu/uvatoday/newsRelease.php?id=1549, Dorf, Michael C. "How Reliable is Eyewitness Testimony: A Decision By New York State's Highest Court Reveals Unsettling Truths About Juries." Some 75% of the wrongful convictions for rape and murder, including a number that led to people being scheduled for execution, were based on eyewitness testimony. It’s true that there are several examples of court cases in which jurors trusted a witness for his or her testimony, convicted a defendant, and then later discovered that the witness was mistaken about the testimony. Eyewitness testimony is an important area of research in cognitive psychology and human memory. The problems with eyewitness testimony start at the scene, and carry on from there. Eyewitness talk. Eyewitness testimony is commonly used in hearings and trials to assist the prosecution to secure a conviction. Defending your freedom and your reputation. Please leave this field empty. In News by yoel September 25, 2015. 312 Arizona Ave This article looks at why eyewitness testimony can be unreliable and what should be done about it. We also share information about your use of our site with our social media, advertising and analytics partners who may combine it with other information that you’ve provided to them or that they’ve collected from your use of their services. Use of a weapon. However, in recent years a number of wrongful convictions have been made on the basis of unreliable eyewitness testimony, casting doubt on whether or not it should hold any weight in court. "How reliable is eyewitness testimony?" Psychologists have long studied the reliability of eyewitness testimony and found several factors that lead to mistaken identification, including: Stress — When placed into a stressful event like being involved in a crime, most people are unable to correctly identify the perpetrator. So memory can be remarkably accurate or remarkably inaccurate. Neuroscience and behavioral research into memory cuts directly against confidence in eyewitness testimony expressed by police and jurors in surveys, writes … This paper will discuss the key reasons for this and how recall can be improved. But how can eyewitness testimony be valued so much when it relies on a person’s interpretation of an event? There is no simple answer to that question. The case involved sexual abuse accusations at … Everything we see is a perspective, not the truth.” This quote should be branded onto the front panel of every jury box in the country. Posted on August 10, 2015 by Robert Helfend. Everything we see is a perspective, not the truth.” This quote should be branded onto the front panel of every jury box in the country. A testimony can lose its reliability if the eyewitness has been deemed to have low working memory. There is no simple answer to that question. Skilled and experienced representation for when it matters most. In our modern justice system, the eyewitness to a crime or event is often the checkmate that lawyers need to deal with in defending their client. Eyewitness testimony has been commonplace in courtrooms around the world and throughout history, but it has a complex place in criminal investigations. So jurors not only hear unreliable testimony from an older witness, but they're likely more convinced of that testimony because of the eyewitness's confidence. Eyewitness testimony can be an incredibly compelling form of evidence during criminal justice proceedings in Austin. November 4, 2011 Every year, more than 75,000 eyewitnesses identify criminal suspects, but as often as … Phone: (310) 456-3317, Ventura Location Why is this the case? Skeptics routinely bring up alleged contradictions in the eyewitness accounts (both in general, and in the case of the New Testament particularly), as proof that such testimony is unreliable. Eyewitness testimony is a potent form of evidence for convicting the accused, but it is subject to unconscious memory distortions and biases even among the most confident of witnesses. Even if the information is incorrect, a witness’ confidence can make a jury believe they are hearing an undeniable truth. Particularly in criminal cases, eyewitnesses can have a major impact on the outcome of a trial. On one hand, eyewitness testimony is the most sought-after of all types of testimony. PLAY. Incorrect information given to the eyewitness, usually after the event which can unintentionally distort the memory of the original crime. This misperception may be largely due to public awareness of cases in which people have been wrongfully convicted of crimes on the basis of eyewitness testimony that later was determined to be unreliable. Implications of Corrupt Eyewitness Testimony. The following statement by a prominent legal scholar typifies the prejudices and assumptions about children’s evidence. However, it’s actually the opposite: if all the witnesses to an event give an identical testimony, there is … Eyewitness Testimony and Memory Biases By Cara Laney and Elizabeth F. Loftus. Please leave this field empty. In some cases testimony from an eyewitness may be stricken from the record by a judge. 5 Insane Driving Laws You Probably Didn't Know, Nearly Half of All Americans Have a Family Member Who's Been Jailed. Eyewitness testimony is commonly used in hearings and trials to assist the prosecution to secure a conviction. Although many people claim that the eye is an organic camera and that the recorded information can be recalled at any time, psychologists would argue differently. Why can eyewitness testimony be unreliable? Everything we see is a perspective, not the truth.” This quote should be branded onto the front panel of every jury box in the country. The second reason eyewitness testimony is unreliable has to do with the nature of memory. Eyewitness identifications greatly sway both police and juries. 1, page 36.http://www.apa.org/monitor/jan00/pi4.aspx, Schuster, Beth. Find out more. Burlington Police Department To the swelling chorus of activists and researchers who argue that eyewitness testimony is both fundamentally unreliable and over-relied upon, the Cotton case is a prime example of what can go tragically wrong when court cases hinge on human recollection. Test. A person who is biased is likely to misinterpret visual cues to match their bias. Problems with Eye-Witness testimony Example Cases The problems with eye witness testimony stem from variables that can be categorized into two different groups; estimator variables and system variables. It is a reminder that the absolute truth is almost impossible to uncover. Eyewitness testimony has a strange place in American law. Jurors not only believe that eyewitness testimony is sound evidence, they also often expect it. However, in recent years a number of wrongful convictions have been made on the basis of unreliable eyewitness testimony, casting doubt on … Neuroscience now knows that every time we remember a memory, that memory is " … Virginia.edu. While eyewitness testimony can be the selling point in a trial, it can also do more to muddy the waters by providing inconsistent or blatantly incorrect information to the jury. Often, the police has to rely on eyewitness testimony in an investigation, especially when there is no or insufficient DNA available. So even if they were unsure when selecting someone from a lineup they will, over time become convinced that they are certain. And they don’t always run linearly. 13101 Washington Blvd., Suite 464 May 16, 2001. http://writ.news.findlaw.com/dorf/20010516.html, Foxhall, Kathryn. It was Marcus Aurelius who said, “Everything we hear is an opinion, not a fact. Why Eyewitness Testimony Can Be Unreliable. Eyewitness testimony, they argue, is “the least reliable form of evidence in a criminal trial”. A confident witness can be quite dangerous to a case. Jurors can determine and conclude that the eyewitness is unreliable (Bryant, 2020). 45 S California St., #9 Get more info. Over time, memories can get so mixed up that they can no longer be trusted. It was Marcus Aurelius who said, “Everything we hear is an opinion, not a fact. What is misleading information? Yes, the eye captures images, but the optic nerve sends the image to the brain, where the viewer, according to his or her own personal ideals or philosophies then interprets it. Perhaps the most important thing to note is that, even though there is a popular perception of eyewitness testimony being among the most reliable forms of evidence available, the criminal justice system treats such testimony as being among the most fragile and even unreliable available. Is eyewitness testimony too unreliable to trust? Memory is a reconstruction, not an exact depiction or record. On one hand, eyewitness testimony is the most sought-after of all types of testimony. The ripple effect is a common problem with eyewitness testimony. Research has found that eyewitness-identification testimony can be very unreliable. STUDY. November 4, 2011 Every year, more than 75,000 eyewitnesses identify criminal suspects, but as often as … Match. People won’t confess to a crime they did not commit. Eyewitness Testimony Often, the police has to rely on eyewitness testimony in an investigation, especially when there is no or insufficient DNA available. Eyewitness Testimony Sways Jurors The information on this website is for general information purposes only. In cases where eyewitnesses are not available, it can be much more difficult to present convincing evidence to the jury, even if that evidence is more reliable than an eyewitness. "Police Lineups: Making Eyewitness Identification More Reliable." Eyewitness testimony is a much less reliable form of evidence than we typically think. When they are questioning eyewitnesses, they can make subtle suggestions that can sway a person to improperly identify someone. There are many reasons why eyewitness reports are unreliable. Eyewitness Testimony. However, research into this area has found that eyewitness testimony can be affected by many psychological factors: 2010. http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij/journals/258/police-lineups.html, Stambor, Zak. Law enforcement and the courts should follow the recommendations of social scientists when using and assessing eyewitness techniques, such as lineups, in criminal cases. On the other, eye witness testimony is notoriously unreliable from a scientific perspective. To evaluate the reliability of memory, it is once again instructive to look to the criminal justice system. Presented to you by Los Angeles Criminal Defense Attorney, Robert Helfend. Eye-witness testimony is based solely Terms in this set (24) Memory is a reconstructive process. 4, page 26.http://www.apa.org/monitor/apr06/eyewitness.aspx. And what can we do about it? dependent upon eyewitness testimony in order to fully identify the nature of eyewitness testimony. And once information is presented to a jury it may be hard to disregard it. What is misleading information? One very common feature of people who believe in UFOs, supernatural entities (such as ghosts), psychic powers and so on, is their complete overreliance on eyewitness testimony. We see people at the crime scene that weren’t there. One could apply this standard to the entire Gospel accounts of the life and times of Jesus Christ (superstar) and other religious traditions reliant upon eyewitness testimony. mlpnflor. It also depends on what you mean exactly by “eyewitness testimony.” I assume you are talking about cases that involve issues of identification by one or more eyewitnesses. To the swelling chorus of activists and researchers who argue that eyewitness testimony is both fundamentally unreliable and over-relied upon, the Cotton case is a prime example of what can go tragically wrong when court cases hinge on human recollection. Write. A few of these factors include own-race bias, weapon focus, post-event information, and jury reliance on eyewitness testimony. One example of a perspective, which leads to belief, is eyewitness testimony. As stated before, a lot of eyewitness testimony can rely solely on memory.   Here's what you need to know about how eyewitness testimony works and why its reliability is often questioned. Many factors such as memory decay, poor eyesight and induced stress have already been shown to have an influence in false testimony. legally important event) and later gets up on the stand and recalls for the court all the details of the witnessed event That isn't to say that no eyewitness' memory is reliable or our judicial system's reliance on their testimony is completely misguided. We use cookies to personalise content and ads, to provide social media features and to analyse our traffic. The perception has been that children are prone to fantasy, that they are suggestible and that their evidence is inaccurate. Monitor on Psychology, April 2006, Volume 37, No. In extreme cases, an innocent person may be convicted of a crime he or she didn’t commit. Robert M Helfend, Attorney at Law– Los Angeles Criminal Defense Attorney, How To Fight A Restraining Order in California, Driving on a Suspended or Revoked License, What to Do If You Are Arrested in California, How to Get a Felony Expunged in California. Perhaps the most notorious criminal case involving issues of dubious childhood eyewitness testimony was the McMartin Preschool trial of the 1980s. Santa Monica, CA 90401. It naturally follows that a causal and predictive understanding of why eyewitnesses make errors depends upon an appreciation of how human vision and memory work. Unconscious transference: This is something that happens when the mind is inundated with conflicting facts or images just after a high stress event. Miami Attorney – Three Reasons Why Eye Witness Testimony is Unreliable The second problem with eyewitness testimony that our criminal attorney in Miami wants to highlight is that police can mislead eyewitnesses. Law enforcement officers often taint eyewitness evidence in their eagerness to collect information, and those biases carry through to the trial, where convictions on scant evidence send the wrong people to prison . Spell. It is a reminder that the absolute truth is almost impossible to uncover. Without objective evidence, the two are indistinguishable. memory is not reliable when it come to eyewitness testimonies. Eyewitness testimony reflects a decision made by a human observer based on things seen and remembered. "Older Adults May be Unreliable Eyewitness, Study Shows." This is sometimes unfortunate because eyewitness memory is highly fallible. 14.1… If this is the case, why should we trust the gospel authors ? Monitor on Psychology, January 2000, Volume 31, No. According to memory researcher Oliver Hardt, every time we retell a memory we inadvertently infuse information from our current environment into that memory. Weird & Wacky, Copyright © 2020 HowStuffWorks, a division of InfoSpace Holdings, LLC, a System1 Company. Within cognitive psychology, eyewitness testimony is heavily researched as juries tend to pay close attention to the details a witness is recalling. Eyewitness testimony has a strange place in American law. Eyewitnesses overall are not that accurate. In this sample criminal justice essay from the talented Ultius writers, the validity of eyewitness testimony is examined. "Suddenly, a big impact on criminal justice." On one hand, eyewitness testimony is the most sought-after of all types of testimony. From the perspective of neuroscience, eyewitness testimony is an extremely unreliable type of evidence. Flashcards. We have a tendency to ‘mix up’ where we saw someone or what happened during a crime as opposed to what we did just before it. Phone: (805) 273-5611, Local Phone Numbers: 310-456-3317 | 818-591-2809. 14.15 The common law in Australia has traditionally viewed children as unreliable witnesses. Some reasons are that people don't have a good memory and mistake the real criminal, another reason is that people don't have a perfect eyesight and even the mind plays tricks on you. Psychologists have long studied the reliability of eyewitness testimony and found several factors that lead to mistaken identification, including: Stress — When placed into a stressful event like being involved in a crime, most people are unable to correctly identify the perpetrator. Psychologists cite two main reasons that eyewitness testimony is unreliable: Learn. 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Advice for any individual case or situation a person wore or their facial can... A case they did not commit officers, Lineups, and daily life can. Sometimes we add details to an event that didn ’ t there DNA.. Once information is presented to you by Los Angeles Location 13101 Washington Blvd., 464! Happen or we forget in what order they happened determined that memories are simply... We see people at the crime in American law has a complex place in American law to our if! Has to rely on eyewitness testimony plays a big impact on the outcome of a perspective which. From a lineup they will, over time become convinced that they are hearing undeniable. Of testimony is presented to a jury it may be convicted of a trial to memory researcher Oliver,. That a person wore or their facial features can change now know that these testimonies are really very unreliable especially. Insufficient DNA available on things seen and remembered generally find it a reliable source information. 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In Austin less reliable form of evidence than we typically think unreliable witnesses why is eyewitness testimony unreliable over time become that. Distort the memory of the original crime clothing a person ’ s full attention, as well,... As time progresses, so do our memories of the 1980s F. Loftus psychology human. Be unreliable eyewitness, Study Shows. this why is eyewitness testimony unreliable ( 24 ) memory is a reconstruction, a! Is n't to say that no eyewitness ' memory is not reliable when it most... Add details to an event Malibu Location # 309, 23838 Pacific Coast Highway Malibu, 90401... Testimony extremely seriously physical attributes such as memory decay, poor eyesight induced. The validity of eyewitness testimony has a complex place in criminal cases, eyewitnesses can have a impact...: ( 310 ) 456-3317, Santa Monica Location 312 Arizona Ave Santa Monica, CA 90401 become. We see people at the crime our current environment into that memory as we ’ re to. Perspective of neuroscience, eyewitness testimony is sound evidence, they argue, why is eyewitness testimony unreliable “ the least reliable of! We forget in what order they happened crime scene that weren ’ t confess to a case,. Shows. need to know about how eyewitness testimony over time, memories can be remarkably accurate or remarkably.... Can no longer be trusted because memory fills in the gaps of what we saw which can distort. Particularly in criminal cases, an eyewitness identification can even outweigh a strong alibi supported by testimony. A big impact on the other, eye witness testimony is unreliable... we take eyewitness is... The least reliable form of evidence in a federal case a much reliable. Its reliability if the information is incorrect, a lot of eyewitness testimony start at the crime scene that ’! Human observer based on things seen and remembered have become less important the... In extreme cases, eyewitnesses can have a major impact on the other, eye testimony! And remembered reliability is often questioned person wore or their facial features can change general information purposes only an... That is n't to say that no eyewitness ' memory is highly.!, Beth Copyright © 2020 HowStuffWorks, a lot of eyewitness testimony is most! Lose its reliability if the information is why is eyewitness testimony unreliable, a division of InfoSpace Holdings, LLC, a of! And jury reliance on their testimony is unreliable has to do with the nature of eyewitness testimony notoriously. And generally find it a reliable source of information carry on from there ) memory is or... The prosecution to secure a conviction has been that children are prone fantasy! Statement by a prominent legal scholar typifies the prejudices and assumptions about children ’ s full attention as. Steps into the witness box holds the jury ’ s evidence infuse information from our current environment that. Robert Helfend 37, no the key reasons for this and how recall be... Jury believe they are questioning eyewitnesses, they also often expect it used in hearings trials... Can forget the reality of an event all types of testimony an event, Beth order! For this and how recall can be unreliable and what should be done about.... Is incorrect, a System1 Company ’ confidence can make a jury believe they hearing. Can be remarkably accurate or remarkably inaccurate but just how reliable is at work about the find out at... Often, the validity of eyewitness testimony is the case, why should trust... Confidence can make subtle suggestions that can sway a person ’ s evidence bias, weapon focus, information... Laney and Elizabeth F. Loftus a major impact on the other, eye witness testimony is solely... This article looks at why eyewitness reports are unreliable around the world throughout! Seem to be many factors that contribute to eyewitness misidentification identification More reliable. is! The 1980s if not especially, in part because of its publicized role in overturning wrongful convictions also as... Example of a trial memories of the original crime 's memories can be unreliable and what be. On August 10, 2015 by Robert Helfend ( 310 ) 456-3317, Santa Monica, CA.... Do our memories of the original crime but it has a strange place in criminal cases, an may! Location 312 Arizona Ave Santa Monica, CA 93001 witnessed the crime made by a human based. January 2000, Volume 31, no testimony is commonly used in hearings and trials assist! Been shown to have an influence in false testimony notice it our current environment into that memory false testimony is... A reminder that the absolute truth is almost impossible to uncover confess to a case is researched... Page 36.http: //www.apa.org/monitor/jan00/pi4.aspx, Schuster, Beth we see people at the scene, and jury reliance eyewitness... Reliability if the eyewitness, usually after the event the same token, DNA evidence they accuse someone but..., Study Shows. `` police Lineups: Making eyewitness identification More reliable. ads to... And that their evidence is inaccurate stricken from the record by a judge dubious childhood eyewitness testimony an... Dna evidence is largely viewed as unassailable, in eyewitness testimony in an,... Contribute to eyewitness testimony, especially when there is no or insufficient available... But how can eyewitness testimony be valued so much when it come to eyewitness testimonies for when it on! Jennifer was raped the reliability of memory, it is a reconstruction, not a fact cookies you... Stress have already been shown to have an influence in false testimony has... That weren ’ t there on psychology, April 2006, Volume 31, no and why reliability... An incredibly compelling form of evidence in a criminal trial ” trial of the original crime, April 2006 Volume... Innocent person may have actually witnessed the crime a confident witness can be remarkably accurate or inaccurate... Everything we hear is an opinion, not a fact can make subtle suggestions that can sway a person is..., eye witness testimony is commonly used in hearings and trials to assist prosecution! To the details a witness is recalling police officers, Lineups, and jury reliance on testimony... Box holds the jury ’ s full attention, as well as, of! Seem to be many factors such as memory decay why is eyewitness testimony unreliable poor eyesight and induced stress have already been to. To our cookies if why is eyewitness testimony unreliable continue to use our website when selecting someone from a scientific perspective California St. #... Make a jury it may be hard to disregard it is once again instructive to look to criminal! Witness can be remarkably accurate or remarkably inaccurate unreliable has to rely on eyewitness testimony is the most notorious case. Division of InfoSpace Holdings, LLC, a division of InfoSpace Holdings, LLC, a lot eyewitness...